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Brownian_Motion_colloids
Introduction and motivation: measuring viscosity with colloids
One of the most significant scientific advances in the 20th century was the complete description of Brownian motion. When Einstein's theory for Brownian motion, and Stokes's solution for drag on a sphere in a viscous liquid were merged to form the StokesEinstein relation, a whole new world for scientific development opened up. Indeed, this simple equation:
$$D = \frac{k_B T}{6 \pi \eta r}$$,
where $D$ represents the diffusion coefficient, $k_B$ is Boltzmann's constant, $T$ is the temperature, $\eta$ the liquid viscosity and $r$ the particle radius, has been implicated in no fewer than three Nobel prizes!
In this module, we will derive this expression, and use it to measure the viscosity of a waterglycerol mixture. This will be achieved by embedding a low numerical concentration of 1.1 microndiameter colloids. To do this, we will track the motion of these particles, and measure their meansquared displacement, which grows linearly with the lagtime. The constant of proportionality is related to $D$.
Readings
week 1
Read chapter 1 from Howard Berg's book on random walks (link here).
Review these notes on Einstein's analysis (link here)
Review these notes on Stokes drag (link here)
Review the particlehandling information sheet (link here), and review our particle's properties (link here)
week 2
Carefully read the 1st chapter from Howard Berg's book on random walks (from last week). You should be able to relate the diffusion coefficient to the meansquare displacment to D for a given diffusive trajectory in 2D.
week 3
Note that office hours will be held on Tuesday starting at 14:30. We will likely be in the lab on the ground floor. If you don't find us, call John's office number: +41 21 693 02 70
I suggest you look at the scientific literature to help develop your discussion and conclusion. Can you identify an open question? How about a question that was recently addressed using colloids that diffuse? For a point of reference, there are some cool questions related to farfrom equilibrium thermodynamics that can be approached with colloids: Spatial Crossover Between FarFromEquilibrium and NearEquilibrium Dynamics in Locally Driven Suspensions (aps.org)
Week 4
Exceptionally, the Tuesday afternoon office hours will not be held this week. If you require additional measurements, we can make arrangements to do this.
Note that instead of meeting in person, John will hold online office hours on Zoom at meeting no. 932 9511 6450. The office hours will be held from 8 until 12 on Wednesday, 22.12.
A second office hour session will be held after the holiday and prior to the 3rd report submission deadline, on 5.1.2022, again from 8 until 12, at the same Zoom room.
Exercises
week 1

Calculate the volume proportions of glycerol and water for the viscosity you will prepare for your assigned viscosity. The assigned viscosity is the number of your group x 10 cSt. The total target volume of water + glycerol + particles is 1 ml. Here is a link for an online calculator

calculate a `reasonable' concentration of particles for your measurement: approximately 50 particles per 1 mm x 1mm x 10 microns (!)
 write a protocol for steps 1 & 2 to carry out next week to include as an appendix to your lab reports

Download the mfiles from http://site.physics.georgetown.edu/matlab/ or, if you prefer python, download the trackpy package, located here.
Lecture notes
Group Submissions
Group 1: Automated calculation of volume shares for a specified target viscosity
Group 4 : Identifying the particle diameter in pixel using ImageJ
Group 2 : Estimating the glycerin's water content through rheometry
Group 3: How to insert ImageJ plugins as Java applet into an HTML page
Group 5: Another method to compute viscosity